Regional development and administrative management 2_ Regional extinction and regional development

0. Entering

Today we will have time to develop with local governments. We will invite a speaker with a local city killing department to listen to the details. Before that, I need to worry about the following questions.

Is it the only alternative to relocation of public institutions?

Although it is not a unique means, the government’s realistic approach is inevitable. Companies have a hard time moving.

Resistance can be a small and effective part.

How about relocating the metropolitan university to the province like before Gangnam, a famous high school?

In view of the effect of distributed, large companies and mid -sized companies are large and difficult.

Given the concentration of lawyers and tax offices near the city hall, architects, and courts, the relevant period will be relocated 코인카지노 when transferring public institutions.

Tax reduction and transportation network expansion for private local relocation should be preceded.

You should look for a balanced development plan without relocating public institutions. It is necessary to develop according to local characteristics. It should be easily moved anywhere by improving the traffic system.

It is difficult to relocate large companies, but it may be more effective.

Fairy tales with the previous community are important. Let’s look at the cases of innovation cities and Daejeon.

In the central, local governments, and public institutions, it is necessary to invest intensive investment such as farming industrial complexes and improving the conditions of settlement.

You have to go with decentralization.

Along with public institutions, you should also go together. Philippines SM Mall Case

Private relocation can be the last process, so the relocation of local governments is realistic.

Regional deployment of industrial infrastructure is continuous and helps for regional development.

Even Busan is not enough in culture, education, and data compared to Seoul. There is not much support to settle.

Inefficiency in business with related organizations occurs. It may be easy to take away the life of the employees of the previous organization and relocate the public institution, but it is necessary to promote more human and rational effective methods in addition to the method of forcing the workplace and the personnel in modern society.

Local relocation of public institutions, a good job, is positive for balanced development.

Should I do public institutions in the existing innovation city?

Let’s empower the innovative city.

The previous speed is relatively fast.

Still, urban community occurs on weekends due to the lack of investment in infrastructure infrastructure.

Expansion of urban infrastructure and high value -added services due to the increase in the population of the existing innovation city

It should be found in the existing innovation concentration.

If functional collection is the purpose, it should be an existing innovation city and a new city for balanced development.

Daejeon and Chungnam Innovation City have been newly designated, and consideration is needed.

If the function of the previous organization is in the existing innovation city, it is an existing city.

In the case of Pohang City, the new town will be better.

A new innovation city in line with the cause of balanced development

Review of new cities after evaluation of existing innovative cities

The creation of a new city occurs only the influx of population of existing cities

It is cheating to build a small city in the area for the distribution of the population.

It is necessary to be shared in pain, education, culture, medical care, and infrastructure by creating it in an area adjacent to the existing city and old town.

Priority to improve problems in existing innovation cities (40%commuting to Chungbuk innovation city)

Innovative city population relocation effect

Is the population relocation effect inflow from a big city? Or is it transferred from the surrounding area?

If you go down in Seoul, of course, it is relatively difficult, but for the local point of view, there is an incentive that can move as a very good new town.

Regional balanced development by presidential candidate

The presidential candidates have alternatives to regional balanced development as follows.

The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport is said to be the deputy prime minister, the administrative capital divided into Sejong, Seoul, or the establishment of a regional economic life development support team belonging to the Prime Minister’s Office.

In the case of Lee Jae -myung, the local tax rate should be raised to 40%.

Integrated care centered on communities realizes intense decentralization such as human resources, organizations, and budgets.

1. Tanen’s agricultural location theory

In 1826, Tanen gave theory of agricultural deployment in isolated countries. The closer you are in the center of the city, the more the location is in the order of horticultural agriculture, grain farming, sampo -style agriculture, and crushed wood. At this time, the industrial revolution was a full -fledged warning, so it was focused on agriculture.

In addition, if there is a river, he argued that the forestry will naturally develop around the river and Yoon Jae -sik agriculture will be located around it. The market area of ​​small and small cities is said to be newly distributed in areas where grain -style agricultural agriculture is distributed, and it is famous for expressing the creation of the city from the point of view of agriculture.

2. Webber’s industrial location theory

Webber insists to create a dialogue at the dialogue, focusing on supply factors.

Supply factors should be considered for transportation, labor, and accumulation.

Therefore, Webber’s industrial location theory is the minimum cost theory.

According to the minimum cost theory, the furniture plant is made near the city and the cement factory is made near the place where resources are mined.

It is focused on the factors or supply factors.

3. Demand -centered location theory

Russch insisted on the maximum demand theory.

It is to calculate key variables around demand and develop location theory.

The point that denies the minimum cost theory and maximizes demand is to maximize profits.

The optimal location theory is the largest demand point.

4. Crystaler center theory

Some compartments are made wide, and some compartments are made wide.

The central theory of the crystaler is the theory that the city is composed of a crystal shape as functions are accumulated around the center.

5. 4th industrial location

The location is made in a convenient place for face -to -face contact. It is important to exchange doctors by means of communication.

It is a large city that can secure professional services such as lawyers and finance.

High access to large cities and abroad has the convenience of using major means of transportation.

Therefore, the location preference or bias is Seocho in the law, Gwanghwamun in the media, and Pangyo for IT.

6. Report theory_ Balanced theory

The growth model of the national economy applied the reporting model.

Depending on the supply of production factors -dependent on local productivity -local production

Production factors and product movement that occur between the regions have a balanced price and income level. In the low -wage area, the inflow of capital and the leakage of labor will increase wages and income levels. On the other hand, the high -paying area will lower wages and income levels due to the leakage of capital and the influx of labor.

Assumption of Balanced theory: Production function, marginal production sensation function, free movement of production elements and products

In reality, however, it affects the selective movement of production factors, external economic effects, and government investment policy.

Book introduction

Local small and medium -sized cities have to recognize decline to open their way.

Dilemma and its solution of regional balanced development

Abnormalities in local cities: Mungyeong -si, Gyeongbuk, doubled farm income, ‘the best tourism sports city in the country’, ‘Luxury education city to raise children’, and Jeonbuk Gimje -si ’20 million wide -area economic cities’, ‘Advanced science farming city’ Boryeong -si, Chungcheongnam -do, is planning to become a global Boryeong and the economic center of the west coast. In addition to these, all cities in the country are carrying out this rosy plan, which is based on population precision plants. According to the predictions of these local governments, the population of Korea should be about 64 million in the next 10 to 20 years.

Reality of local cities: In 2040, 30%of local governments are expected to fall in fact, compared to 1995, and are in fact a loss of function, and many (96%) are local small and medium cities. 38%of the 65 -year -old population is over 20%, which are also local small and medium -sized cities. Mungyeong, Gimje, and Boryeong areas, which are planning a huge development plan, are also selected by the Korea Institute of Land, Institute of Land, Infrastructure and Transport. According to the current trend, for example, Jangheung -gun, for example, is expected to be “0” in 2040. The fate of Boeun -gun (2051), Haenam -gun (2059), and Hadong -gun (2072) is also foreseen.



Go in: Don’t even be divided evenly!

Part 1 The decline of the fat is destroyed

Chapter 1: Local governments that will fall into functional paralysis in 2040

Local small and medium -sized cities suffering from a decline in population

In 2040, 30%of local governments are lost function

The city where people are back

Chapter 2: Diagnosis of Fields of Local Declaration

The reality of fat decline

Scholars’ diagnosis on the cause of decline

The true cause of the decline of the city is jobs!

2 regions of parts of the region are trying to prevent decline, everything is in vain!

Chapter 3: The black hole called ‘fat decline’

Mega trend of low growth, local city that struggles

The aging phenomenon of small and medium cities worse than large cities

Declaration of local cities led by the 4th Industrial Revolution

Mega trend is after storm

Local problems that will spread out of control

Chapter 4: I’m caught in a swamp and falls into a swamp…

Savior, local industrial complex!

Regional festival

Festival for local residents, local residents, local residents?

Decline cities that cannot be saved by casino business

Local small and medium -sized city that will be a hippopotamus that eats money

You can’t save all the places to decline in Part 3!

Chapter 5: Expansion in small and medium -sized cities is a disaster

Walking through the city center

Is the decline of the city center is the fate of small and medium cities?

The reason why the original city is empty: the outskirts of apartments

The reason why the original city is empty: large mart

Even now, a huge amount of money is disappearing in the regeneration business.

Chapter 6: The last emergency exit of the local city

The current government’s urban regeneration policy, low possibility of success!

Compressing the city is the only way to live

You have to choose a ‘smart reduction’ strategy!

Our small and medium cities who don’t want to recognize decline

How should I change local cities?

First, let’s face the reality and admit to reduce it!

Second, it dies when scattered!

Third, it is necessary to foster jobs for a small city

Going out: Is there any hope in the local city?

Publisher review

Mega trend of low birth rates, aging, and low growth

-The ‘spatial Matthew effect’ in the local city

The author asserts at the beginning of the book. “The decline in small and medium -sized cities in Korea is not an area of ​​prediction.” “The decline is already a reality, and it is also a serious level. And in the next 20 years, local cities will decline more severely than they have been in the last decade. ” The reason the author is so convinced is because of the mega trend of low birth rate, aging, and low growth. It is unlikely that the Korean economy, which has fallen to the growth rate of 2-3%, will grow as high as in the past. Korea’s population is also peaked around 2030, and since then, it is expected to decrease rapidly. The government predicted that the population would evaporate 15% for 30 years from 2030, and demographic David Coleman pointed to Korea as the first country to disappear on the map 300 years later. As the total population decreases, the age group grows old, the growth rate will fall further.

The decline of local small and medium cities, where these mega trends act as structural factors, are inevitable. If the economic vitality and growth potential falls, money and people are more likely to be more likely. It is to maximize the profits of the population and industrial accumulation. This is why the population movement continues from the local cities to the metropolitan area, and the price of real estate in the metropolitan area does not fall even during the recession. The author calls this phenomenon in Matthew’s Gospel verses that “the one who is not being able to take it is abundant, and the one who will not be there will be taken away.”

Local cities have made various efforts to prevent decline. It is also aimed at creating an industrial complex with unprecedented conditions, and holding festivals and fostering the tourism industry. But most attempts are only turning on. Such a case is full of kicks throughout this book. For example, Mokpo City established an ocean general industrial complex of 1070,000 square meters in 2016, but the pre -sale rate remained at 27.3% as of April 2017. In the last six years, more than 200 industrial complexes have been developed, and the pre -sale rate is falling and even the pre -sale rate is 0%. What is the festival held throughout the country as it is a festival boom? As of 2014, there are 361 large festivals (more than 500 million won for metropolitan festivals and more than 300 million won in basic municipality). Nevertheless, the only surplus was Hwacheon’s mountain trout festival. Even if he succeeded, he could not revive the city with it. The reality that Hampyeong, which has gained a national fame as a butterfly festival, continues to decrease the population. Even the city of Gangwon Land, a casino who earns enormous profits, is not able to find any other rehabilitation means. In the past 20 years, direct indirect support and taxes from Kangwon Land have been combined in the abandoned mine area such as Jeongseon, Taebaek, and Yeongwol. However, the cities are still stagnant and the population continues to escape.

A national crisis that begins with the decline of locals

-The “compressed city” strategy as a prescription war

The decline of the province does not end with the problem of the area alone. “Local small and medium cities, which cannot survive their own without the support of the central government, will become a black hole that sucks the government budget, and soon the country will be rotten by this problem soon.” Let’s say the city’s population has decreased from 200,000 to 100,000. But can we reduce the city’s roads or numbers? There is a cost of infrastructure that is basically included in any city. In addition, financial efficiency drops sharply if only half of the same area is built.

It is clear when comparing the average expenditure per person in large cities and small and medium -sized cities. In the metropolitan area (Seoul +5 Daegwang Station), the average amount of expenditure per person increased by 15 years (4.27 million won in 2001 → 16.19 million won in 2016). However, in 20 reduced cities, it increased 34.54 million won from 13.68 million won to 48.22 million won. However, in 82 military districts nationwide, it increased by 53.85 million won from 19.84 million won to 73.69 million won. In 2027, the company’s per capita expenditure will be 24.67 million won, 20 reduced cities will be 75.68 million won, and military units will be 117.39 million won.

This economic inefficiency will increase as the local decline. As deficits accumulate, service sectors such as banks and hospitals are already leaving local small and medium cities. In the province, there is a lack of obstetrics and gynecology, and in Gangwon -do, the maternal death fee (the proportion of mothers who have a child) is 10 times higher than in Seoul. But countries that must be responsible for the people cannot abandon the province. Local cities have spent a lot of money and efforts for revival and growth, and the central government has supported it under the name of local balance, but in reality it is difficult to expect the decline of local cities. Now we need to change the fundamental paradigm of local city policy. It is time to acknowledge the decline and find a way for a local city to survive.

The author presents the “compressed city” strategy as a prescription for the government’s urban regeneration policy. The key is to change the direction towards ‘compression’ rather than ‘growing’ the city. First of all, decline should be recognized as an inevitable reality. It is natural to reduce your clothes if your size is reduced. The same is true for cities. That way, you can minimize the impact of decline and live efficiently with the decrease in the population.

The Moon Jae -in administration announced that it would invest a total of 50 trillion won in urban regeneration for 10 trillion won a year during his tenure. This is a huge amount of twice the budget for the Four Rivers. But will the area survive to invest only money in the decline? Is it possible to save all the decline in the country? not. To do this, there must be three kinds of constitution improvements in the city.

First, the decline of local small and medium -sized cities should stop developing the outskirts. The growth and expansion -oriented policy of developing a large number of residential complexes and commercial facilities on the outskirts, like the metropolitan area, is only a disaster.

Second, the functions of the scattered cities should be collected to the city center. There is also public service, and the wide -area transportation network should be connected to the nearby local base cities, and the base city should be able to supply various functions that small and medium -sized cities cannot provide.

Third, job development for small and medium -sized cities is needed. Companies are not necessarily a job because they are in the provinces. As you can see from the “paradox of Sunchang Gochujang” (the red pepper paste factory has reached 100 times for 25 years, but only 10 jobs have increased), it is often not helpful for jobs. It is necessary to foster village companies that can fit the local characteristics and contribute to the local economy, creating an environment where they can survive.

The decline of the city is not the death of the city. You can live happily even if you are reduced. Rather, if you do not cope with decline properly, the city can really die. Wisdom to determine where to grow and develop and to be compressed. If not, we may actually write the “killing department” of a local city.

Special lecture. Regional balanced development strategy in response to changes in industrial structures

1. Space gaps that trigger industrial structure changes

2. Efforts to respond to national imbalances

3. Wide -range linkage and base

4. The characteristics of the base

Min nation question

1. What does the ‘compressed city’ for Matthew effect mean? Is it actually possible?

2. Where is the compression city effect theoretically close? Didn’t you transform the central theory of Crystaler? In other words, is it not in the process of going to a big city to make a small and medium -sized city a compressed city? Then it is differentiated, isn’t it a solution?

3. The local city murderer eventually suggested problems and alternatives based on the ‘population’ problem. Do you think that incentives for the influx of population are industrialization?

4. Can balance development be an alternative as an alternative to polarization?

5. I saw the population inflow and jobs at the industrial location hall, and it seems that political factors and legal requirements are needed to link local governments in alternatives. Is it necessary to have a distribution system like basic income for linkage?

1. Space gaps that trigger industrial structure changes

Changes in industry and fertility rates

Currently, the Fourth Industrial Revolution has been leading to changes in the industrial structure very quickly and reducing jobs.

In addition, changes in the population structure are developing into low birth rates and aging.

The change in the space structure is, of course, the phenomenon of focusing on one space.

It will appear as a change in local industrial structure and regional population structure.

In response, the metropolitanization and mega -city of the space are emerging, and the change of role sharing between the region itself and the basic local government is caused. It is necessary to make this well.

Then think about it. Is it right to increase efficiency in the metropolitan area?

In order for the population to be sustainable, the total birth rate must be 2.2, but Korea is about 1.1. In other words, it is not only the lowest among OECD countries, but also the lowest in the world. Seoul is about 0.9. Does this make sense?

Low birth fertility is not a problem of seven Pose alone, but a problem of the whole country.

In this process, in the area of ​​increasing authorization, the regional environment is deteriorating in areas where competition is intensified and household prices.

The population growth area requires efforts to strengthen self -sufficiency through the development of new cities, and creates alternatives such as GTX, transportation and telecommunications investment GTX.

In the population reduction area, decentralization discussions are centered, and the discussion of integration of the Gwangju area is emerging.

Innovative growth enterprise, metropolitan area

The seven mega trends in the industrial location through big data and social connection network analysis show that employment changes and population changes are interlocked. In this case, innovative growth companies are difficult to sprout in the non -capital region.

In the mining partner, the development of high -tech industries will reduce the demand for local industrial complexes and focus on high -quality manpower to the metropolitan area.

Urban high density will develop into the regional area of ​​the living area, and the sharing economy will arrive and direct proximity to direct residents.

Classification of innovative companies

Innovation -type company: annual R & D expenditure companies

Innovation Growth Company: Employment, Sales, Research Funds Simultaneous Growth Company

Gazelle Company: Growth company an average of more than 20%per year

Startup company distribution

Startup companies are also developing around downtown Seoul and Seoul.

According to the percentage of start -ups that received a large investment, most of them are more than 80%in Seoul and more than 60%are concentrated in Gangnam.

When startups spread the effects of the 4th Industrial Revolution with innovative solutions, the surrounding locations are eventually concentrated in the metropolitan area.

There is a large number of crowds in Gangnam in the metropolitan area.

Labor market, employment

The polarization of the labor market is rapidly progressing. The proportion of medium wages in labor is very low.

The decline of medium wage jobs also affects the space low.

This is a global phenomenon in OECD countries.

Let’s look at the curve of Mila Nobi Beach. Through this curve, the false -skilled labor market is collapsing, and in competitive large cities, the high -tech industry increases, and the province has a decrease in jobs in general.

In the middle and lower classes of high -income countries, real income decreases, and in global new countries, the middle class has the highest real income.

The phenomenon of high value value as the center is natural.

The high -wage job is a job

In general, people follow jobs.

High -wage occupations follow people.

This encourages the unbalanced development of space.

In the case of SK Hynix, this phenomenon occurs. Originally, SK Hynix tried to locate in Gumi, but because it was difficult to find manpower, it was forced to stick to Yongin, which is near the metropolitan area.

2. Efforts to respond to national imbalances

Without special efforts, the daily polarization of the national space will appear naturally.

The stronger the metropolitan area, the small and medium -sized cities that are holding up, and the local cities will be destroyed.

From the point of view of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, engineers are concentrated in the metropolitan area.

House prices

Due to this imbalance, the population takes place increases in house prices.

Since it develops into a national crisis, a large number of new quantities in the ‘supply point’ is a short -term alternative.

Supply can create another demand. Of course so. However, as we have seen earlier, it is inevitable to concentrate on Seoul or the metropolitan area.

This all occurs at social costs. Unless it is a balanced development, the disadvantage of integration increases.

Even if the population decreases, the price of the population does not fall.

3. Wide -range linkage and base

Therefore, various discussions arise to solve the above problems.

Usually, there are alternatives to integrate administrative districts or to make Mega City. There are discussions such as city platforms and Southeast International Free City areas.

There are also southern coastal tourist belts and South Korean central central strategies.

Korea lacks the experience of local autonomy compared to Europe. The attempt is good, but you have to create a political structure that suits it.

According to the Local Autonomy Act, there are recent provisions for installation of special local governments.

This structure is connected to the industrial location structure.

In the location of the economic base base, the metropolitan area is a large -scale urban area that carries out the center of the country, and the central city base is a small and medium -sized city base that performs the central area of ​​the region. Rural and fishing villages are the basis for the local community.


First, the decline of local small and medium -sized cities should stop developing the outskirts. The growth and expansion -oriented policy of developing a large number of residential complexes and commercial facilities on the outskirts, like the metropolitan area, is only a disaster.

Second, the functions of the scattered cities should be collected to the city center. There is also public service, and the wide -area transportation network should be connected to the nearby local base cities, and the base city should be able to supply various functions that small and medium -sized cities cannot provide.

Third, job development for small and medium -sized cities is needed. Companies are not necessarily a job because they are in the provinces. As you can see from the “paradox of Sunchang Gochujang” (the red pepper paste factory has reached 100 times for 25 years, but only 10 jobs have increased), it is often not helpful for jobs. It is necessary to foster village companies that can fit the local characteristics and contribute to the local economy, creating an environment where they can survive.


There is a need for linkage between local governments due to the development of traffic.

It is necessary to recognize the base but to ensure that the profits from the base can be connected to the local government.

Recently, the comprehensive national development plan has been changed under the Basic Land Act.

Comprehensive consideration is needed in space balance, economic efficiency, and administrative autonomy.

4. The characteristics of the base

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